JUnit test with Mockito and Spring

It is important to be able to perform some integration testing without requiring deployment to your application server or connecting to other enterprise infrastructure.

This could be done in your Spring project by using Spring-test library and Mockito framework.

   

Photo credit: Honey

In this post, I present a simple way to create a mock and to inject it into a tested bean.

Preparation of testing with Mockito

To make Mockito available, we need to add following dependency in the pom.xml file.

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.mockito</groupId>
    <artifactId>mockito-core</artifactId>
    <version>1.9.5</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-test</artifactId>
    <version>3.1.2.RELEASE</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Deveop Mockito, Spring and JUnit tests

The code source bellow presents a JUnit test using Spring-test and Mockito framework.

  • @RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class) runs the test with Spring custom runner that will load Spring application context.
  • @Autowire associate invoiceService reference to the InvoiceService instance.
  • @Before annotation executes the setup method before the test.
  • MockitoAnnotations.initMocks(this) scans the class annotation, instanciates invoiceDaoMock and inject it into the InvoiceService bean.
  • when(.(any())).thenReturn() associates a return value with method execution parameters.


import static org.mockito.Mockito.*; 

//Load Spring contexte
@ContextConfiguration(locations = {"classpath:/application-context.xml"})
@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
public class InvoiceServiceTest {
	
	// Create Mock
	@Mock
	private IInvoiceDao invoiceDaoMock;
	
	@InjectMocks
	@Autowired
	private IInvoiceService invoiceService;
	
	
	@Before
	public void setUp() {
		MockitoAnnotations.initMocks(this);
	}

	
	@Test
	public void testProcessInvoice() throws SQLException {
		
		// specify mock behave when method called
		when(invoiceDaoMock.save(any(Invoice.class))).thenReturn(Long.valueOf(1));
		
		Assert.assertNotNull(invoiceService);
		Map<Product, Integer> products = new HashMap<Product, Integer>();
		products.put(new Product("labtop", BigDecimal.valueOf(1255.50)), 2);
		Invoice invoice = invoiceService.processInvoice(products);
		
		Assert.assertEquals(1255.50 * 2, invoice.getTotal().doubleValue(), 0);
		
	}
}

DbUnit – Test and populate database with DbUnit, Hibernate and Spring

In enterprise Java applications development we need to test applications with unit tests. Usually, running a test one time can change database data. This can block running the test a second time because of integrity constraints. There are many solutions to solve this problem like:

  • Running SQL script.
  • Restoring a database.
  • Creating and populating a database with test data.
   

Photo credit: Marta

I think there isn’t a better solution, but some of them are more appropriate for some kind of projects.

Creating a script for initializing database is good solution for project using a big database and which need a large range of data to run significant test, because creating or restoring a database can take a lot of time and machine resources. But it can be complicated to create the script because we need to respect data dependency and to have someone in a team who has good SQL knowledge.

Restoring a data base is a good solution for a project with a stable database schema. A frequent database changes costs a lot of time. At every change, we need to restore a database, to make changes and to create a new backup before running application tests

Creating and populating a database is used for testing applications with small database and for new application developments (Development from scratch). This can be done by creating SQL scripts and running them before executing tests. There is more elegant solution to create and populate database which are based on an ORM like Hibernate and a database testing framework like DbUnit.

DbUnit is a JUnit extension (also usable with Ant) targeted at database-driven projects that, among other things, puts your database into a known state between test runs. This is an excellent way to avoid the myriad of problems that can occur when one test case corrupts the database and causes subsequent tests to fail or exacerbate the damage. [DbUnit web site]

In this post I will present one way of creating, populating and testing a Java application by using Hibernate JPA, Spring and DbUnit.

1 – Creating a Hibernate JPA Project with Spring

In this article I use the same project created in the article Using Hibernate JPA in Spring. You can browse the project in this link or you can checkout the project code from Google code SVN repository from this URL https://project4example1.googlecode.com/svn/trunk. After you check out the project into your IDE, the project will be structured as shown in the picture.

To add DbUnit in your project, you need to add “dbUnit.jar” to the project library. If you are using Maven you need to add DbUnit dependency in your pom.xml as shown in the code source bellow.

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.dbunit</groupId>
	<artifactId>dbunit</artifactId>
	<version>2.4.7</version>
	<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
   

2 – Populate the database with DbUnit

The code source bellow presents the content of the FlatXmlDataSet.xml used in this project. The structure of the file is easy to understand; Each XML element corresponds to a table row. Each XML element name corresponds to a table name. The XML attributes correspond to table columns.

<!DOCTYPE dataset SYSTEM "src/test/resources/my-dataset.dtd">
<dataset>
	<customer customer_id="1" tax_id="2" name="name1" adresse="adresse1"
		city="Paris" state="Paris" zip="75001" phone="0606060606" />
	<customer customer_id="2" tax_id="3" name="name2" adresse="adresse2"
		city="Paris" state="Paris" zip="75002" phone="0606060607" />
	<customer customer_id="3" tax_id="4" name="name3" adresse="adresse3"
		city="Paris" state="Paris" zip="75003" phone="0606060608" />

	<customer_order order_id="1" customer_id="1"
		date_placed="2008-01-01" date_promised="2008-02-02" terms="terms"
		status="done" />
	<customer_order order_id="2" customer_id="2"
		date_placed="2009-02-02" date_promised="2009-04-20" terms="terms"
		status="done" />
	<customer_order order_id="3" customer_id="2"
		date_placed="2010-03-03" date_promised="2010-05-24" terms="terms"
		status="done" />
	<customer_order order_id="4" customer_id="3"
		date_placed="2008-04-04" date_promised="2008-07-05" terms="terms"
		status="done" />
</dataset>

To control data format you can add DTD file. This file is optional if you don’t want to use a DTD file you have to replace the first line of your flat XML dataset by <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>.

<!ELEMENT dataset (
    customer*,
    customer_order*)>

<!ELEMENT customer EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST customer
	customer_id  CDATA #REQUIRED
	tax_id  CDATA #REQUIRED
	name  CDATA #REQUIRED
	adresse  CDATA #REQUIRED
	city  CDATA #REQUIRED
	state  CDATA #REQUIRED
	zip  CDATA #REQUIRED
	phone  CDATA #REQUIRED   
>

<!ELEMENT customer_order EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST customer_order
	order_id CDATA #REQUIRED
	customer_id CDATA #REQUIRED
	date_placed CDATA #REQUIRED
	date_promised CDATA #REQUIRED
	terms CDATA #REQUIRED
	status CDATA #REQUIRED
>

The code source bellow presents a jUnit test used to test a DAO. Before test execution, the database will be created by Hibernate and it will be populated by DbUnit with XML dataset. In the “setup” method CLEAN_INSERT operation is executed; it deletes all rows in tables and insert data from the data set.

package com.mycompany.test.dao;

import java.io.InputStream;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.util.Collection;

import junit.framework.TestCase;

import org.dbunit.database.DatabaseConnection;
import org.dbunit.database.IDatabaseConnection;
import org.dbunit.dataset.IDataSet;
import org.dbunit.dataset.xml.FlatXmlDataSet;
import org.dbunit.operation.DatabaseOperation;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.orm.hibernate3.SessionFactoryUtils;

import com.mycompany.dao.ICustomerDao;
import com.mycompany.entity.Customer;

public class CustomerDaoTest extends TestCase {

	private static final String[] LOCATIONS = { "application-context.xml" };
	private static final String FLAT_XML_DATASET = "FlatXmlDataSet.xml";
	private ApplicationContext context;
	private ICustomerDao iCustomerDao;


	@Override
	protected void setUp() throws Exception {
		super.setUp();
		context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext(LOCATIONS);
		iCustomerDao = (ICustomerDao) context.getBean("customerDao");
		DatabaseOperation.CLEAN_INSERT.execute(getConnection(), getDataSet());

	}

	public void testGetAllCustomers() {
		Collection<Customer> listCustomers = iCustomerDao.getAll();
		assertFalse(listCustomers.isEmpty());
	}
	
	public void testSaveCustomer() {
		Collection<Customer> listCustomers1 = iCustomerDao.getAll();
		Customer customer = new Customer(1, "name","adresse", "city", "state", "123", "0606060606", null);
		iCustomerDao.save(customer);
		Collection<Customer> listCustomers2 = iCustomerDao.getAll();
		assertEquals(listCustomers2.size() - listCustomers1.size(), 1);
	}
	

	private IDataSet getDataSet() throws Exception {
		InputStream inputStream = this.getClass().getClassLoader().getResourceAsStream(FLAT_XML_DATASET);
		IDataSet dataset = new FlatXmlDataSet(inputStream);
		return dataset;
	}

	private IDatabaseConnection getConnection() throws Exception {
		SessionFactory sessionFactory = (SessionFactory) context.getBean("sessionFactory");
		Connection jdbcConnection = SessionFactoryUtils.getDataSource(sessionFactory).getConnection();
		IDatabaseConnection connection = new DatabaseConnection(jdbcConnection);
		return connection;
	}
}


To test java applications we need to know data at initial state to predict data evolution and to make JUnit assertion. DbUnit gives a smart solution to populate a database. DbUnit is dedicated for applications tests, but I think it could be useful in others contexts like application deployment when we need to fill reference data.

A tip for testing JQuery Autocomplete with Selenium

Selenium is a great tool for testing web application. It tests the client side by launching a web browser and executing functional tests. Developing a test is very easy; we need just to record the test one time by Selenium IDE (Firefox plug-in). The recorded test can be exported to a JUnit test.
But sometimes testing screens with Ajax components need some caution to wait for asynchronous communication and for DHTML to be changed.
The source code below can help testing a JQuery Autocomplete field using Selenium.

                selenium.typeKeys("??locator??", "a");

                int second = 0;
                while(!selenium.isElementPresent("//li[?num?]"))
                {
                    if(second >= 10)
                        break;
                    Thread.sleep(1000);
                    second++;
                }

Testing Frameworks

In web application development we focus more and more in test. We find many testing Frameworks like JUnit, DbUnit, Fitnesse, Sceleminum, JsUnit … On one hand, using testing frameworks can be very helpful for integration test and to avoid regressions, but on the other hand, it could cost too much to develop tests. The picture below presents some test frameworks and the parts of the web application that can be tested by each test framework.

JUnit is most known testing framework. It is very used to test java code but it is not very practical for testing web pages or data persistence.

DbUnit is a great solution for testing DAO. It can help to populate database with test data. In some projects DBunit can be used to initialize database.

JsUnit is a Unit Testing framework for client-side JavaScript. Web application contains more and more dynamic HTML and Ajax components. I have had some bad experience with client-side JavaScript because JavaScript execution can change from one browser to another.

In some agile projects using test-driven development, test tools like Fitnesse or Green Pepper are usually used. Those tools manage application specification and execute functional tests which improve development productivity. But it can be problematic if the general contractor is not motivated to use the test tool or does not handle it. It is neither practical or recommanded to let developer create the functional test.

HttpUnit is a test framework based on JUnit which allows testing the presentation part of the Web application.

Selenium is a great tool for testing web application. It tests the client side by launching a web browser and executing functional tests. Developping a test is very easy; we need just to record the test one time by Selenium IDE (Firefox plug-in). The recorded test can be exported to a JUnit test.

I think using a testing tool is a must for developing any application. Especially web applications need more than one test tool because they contain many technologies (Data Base, Java, JEE, JSP, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Ajax …). Even if there is one tool that can test the whole application like Selenium, I think using at least an other test framework is necessary because it helps identifying regressions with more precision and correcting them faster.